Saturday, December 13, 2014

The Saturday Surveys ( 12 - 13 )

We've gone all the way back to 1959 for this XEAK Chart.

Bobby Rydell tops the list (for at least the second week) with his latest, "We Got Love".  Several other "Teen Idols" rank high on this list, too ... Neil Sedaka ("Oh! Carol") is at #4, followed by Frankie Avalone at #5 with his latest, "Why".  Ricky Nelson has a two-sided hit at #7 with "I Wanna Be Loved" and "Mighty Good".

Freddy "Boom Boom" Cannon holds down the #14 spot with "Way Down Yonder In New Orleans" ... and Paul Anka sits about ten spots below him with his latest, "It's Time To Cry"  (#25)

Looking over this list I have to admit that these titles DO seem pretty dated ... but we can ALWAYS find gold in them thar hills if we look hard enough.

I've always liked "The Big Hurt" by Miss Toni Fisher ... but I don't know how well this one would play in today's radio market.  However, I'd bet the farm on "Why" by Frankie Avalon, "Uh! Oh!" by The Nutty Squirrels, "Way Down Yonder In New Orleans" by Freddy Cannon, "El Paso" by Marty Robbins, "Handy Man" by Jimmy Jones and "Seven Little Girls" by Paul Evans.  Every one of these tunes would perk up your listeners' ears if only given a shot!

Jumping ahead to 1965 we find The Beatles on top of his C-FUN Canadian Chart with their two-sided hit "Day Tripper" / "We Can Work It Out".  "I Can Never Go Home Anymore" by The Shangri-Las and "Puppet On A String" by Elvis are also pretty high on the charts this week.

The McCoys sit at #14 with their follow up to their #1 Hit "Hang On Sloopy", a remake of the '50's classic "Fever".  The Knickerbockers leap 12 places to land at #15 with "Lies".

C-Fun's "Pick Hits" include "A Must To Avoid" by Herman's Hermits and "Big Bright Eyes" by future Three Dog Night member Danny Hutton!

Turn the clock back a year and you find The Beatles on top again with yet ANOTHER two-sided hit ... this time it's "I Feel Fine" / "She's A Woman" that tops this Top 40 Chart.  (I don't see a city OR the station's call letters listed anywhere on this chart ... maybe Clark Besch can fill us in when he sees this piece run!)

Whoever they are, they seem to appreciate a good novelty hit when they see (hear?) one!  "The Other Ringo" by Larry Finegan (featured in one of our 50 Years Ago This Weekend segments a short while back) is at #14 ... and Ron Dante and The Detergents are climbing the chart at #16 with their parody hit "Leader Of The Laundromat".  (The fact that "I'll Be Back" by The Beatles is holding down the #18 spot makes me think that this, too, may be a Canadian chart.)

Roger Miller is at #37 with his latest, "Do Wacka Do" (which I'll bet will be stuck in your head all day long if you play the clip shown below) ... and we ALSO have to feature "My  Buddy Seat" by The Hondells ... a "Forgotten Hit" if there ever was one.  (LOTS of fans of this one on our list!!!)

One more this week ... as we cover charts from the '50's, '60's and '70's!!!

Tri-Cities Rocker WSAM has everybody from Led Zeppelin to Helen Reddy to The Staple Singers to Charlie Rich to Jim Stafford, Olivia Newton-John and Ike and Tina Turner on this chart.  (You'll also find three Ex-Beatles solo hits on the list!)

Let's make it "All About The Ladies" this week ... as we feature "Painted Ladies" by Ian Thomas, "Pretty Lady" by Lighthouse (now THIS one shoulda been a hit!!!) and "The Most Beautiful Girl" by Charlie Rich ... every single one of these would sound good coming out of your radio as a "WOW!" song every now and then!

Friday, December 12, 2014

50 Years Ago This Weekend

December 12-13-14:   

The Beatles leap from #22 to #5 in their second week on the chart with their latest, "I Feel Fine".  (The flipside, "She's A Woman", climbs from #46 to #29). 

Other Top 40 British Hits this week on The Billboard Hot 100 Pop Singles Chart include "She's Not There" by The Zombies (#2), "Time Is On My Side" by The Rolling Stones (#6), "You Really Got Me" by The Kinks (#7), "I'm Into Something Good" by Herman's Hermits (#13), "Sha La La" by Manfred Mann (losing their bullet at #17), "Any Way You Want It" by The Dave Clark Five (#24), "The Wedding" by Julie Rogers (#26) and "Willow Weep For Me" by Chad and Jeremy (#36).  

Marianne Faithful climbs from #50 to #42 with her version of "As Tears Go By", followed by "Have I The Right" by The Honeycombs (#48), "Love Potion Number Nine" by The Searchers (#49), "Walk Away" by Matt Monro (#55), "There's Always Something There To Remind Me" (#65 for Sandi Shaw), "Boom Boom" by The Animals (#67) and "I'll Be There" at #81 by Gerry and the Pacemakers (a GREAT cover of a Bobby Darin B-Side), the only British premier on this week's chart.

The Zombies hold on to the #1 spot for another week with "She's Not There".  "I'm Into Something Good" by Herman's Hermits is up a notch to #3, followed by The Beatles with "I Feel Fine" / "She's A Woman" (#4), "Time Is On My Side" by The Rolling Stones (#8), "Any Way You Want It" (#12) for The Dave Clark Five, "The Wedding" by Julie Rogers (#19), "As Tears Go By" (#21) by Marianne Faithful, "Sha La La" by Manfred Mann (#23) and "Walk Away" by Matt Monro (#27).


On December 16th, Adam Faith performed "Boom Boom" on SHINDIG

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Felix Cavaliere's Rascals - Holiday, Hits And More!

Today's special guest review comes courtesy of FH Reader Scott Schultz.  (Scott recently reviewed the Judy Collins show at The Genesee Theatre in Waukegan ... and made a return visit there this past week to catch Felix Cavaliere's Holiday, Hits And More Show.  Here is his review of that concert ...

Felix Cavaliere’s Rascals put on a pleasant show of Christmas classics (plus some new songs) and classic Rascal hits Saturday at the Genesee Theatre in Waukegan, IL.  Sadly only a few people (the theatre was maybe 20% full despite a 2 for 1 ticket offer) got to enjoy it. Felix, playing keyboards. was accompanied by his band consisting of Mike Severs  on lead guitar, Vince Santoro, Jr. on drums, Mark Prentice on bass and, not to be forgotten, Michelle Prentice on background / lead vocals.   

The show began with a couple of upbeat Christmas classics:  Santa Is Coming To Town and Run Run Rudolph. He introduced one of two new Christmas songs next:  Christmas Is Coming Soon, followed by Please Come Home for Christmas. Next was a medley of Groovin’ (On a Sunday Afternoon) / My Girl / Just My Imagination ... that got the crowd in the mood. Next was a well done, uptempo version of White Christmas.  

Felix then introduced guest performers From Warren Township High School ... the Choral group “Vocal Velocity”. These kids were great. They started with an animated version of the old Christmas classic “I’m Gettin’ Nuthin’ For Christmas” and a holiday adaptation of Glenn Miller’s  In the Mood. Felix and the band returned to the stage and sang Silent Night, Greensleeves and Noel.   Drummer Vince Santoro sang lead on Little Drummer Boy, all done with Vocal Velocity backing them up.  

Next we were treated to the dynamic voice of Michelle Prentice on O Holy Night. Felix followed with the Rascals' hit It’s A Beautiful Morning.  Then it was back to Christmas songs with an uptempo version of Bells of St. Mary, another new composition, Christmas in New Orleans and Michelle Prentice singing lead on All I Need For Christmas Is You.  

As we neared the conclusion of the night, they performed People Gotta Be Free, Pharrell Williams’ Happy, Felix Navidad and closed with Good Lovin’.  

It was a great show and if you like Christmas music, this is one that shouldn’t be missed. Afterward Felix and Michelle did a meet and greet, signing autographs and taking pictures. Felix also has a brand new Christmas album out called “Christmas Joy”, featuring many songs from the show. 

-- Scott Schultz

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Ronnie Spector: Best Christmas Ever Concert Review

Pssst ... let me let you in on a little secret. The first time I saw Veronica Bennett on our old 16 inch black and white TV, I did what any testosterone driven 14 years old kid would do -  and I did it furiously. Get the point?  

A young Ronnie Spector oozed sexuality, while her vocals packed overwhelming passion combined with a unique vibe of vulnerability. This "Bad Girl of Rock 'n Roll" was one hot young woman.  

Sure, I dug the Supremes. Their body of work cannot be disputed. But the Berry Gordy creation always struck me as being just too damn homogenized for their own good. I mean can you really compare Diana Ross warbling "Baby Love" to the Ronnie Spector and the Ronettes sizzling "Do I Love You?" ... or Ronnie's plaintiff cry for love in "Walking in the Rain?"  

Now, push the hands ahead about 40 years. The Ronnie Spector Christmas Show turned up at promoter Ron Onesti's Arcada Theater Sunday night.  Yes, Ronnie gave lip service to handful of Christmas tunes, but that was something of a red herring. Really, who wants to hear Ronnie sing about reindeer when she can remind you that the Ronettes originally performed "I Can Hear Music", a song that later became a minor hit for the Beach Boys.  

Ronnie almost brought me to tears with her superb cover of the Carpenters' underrated "Yesterday Once More" ("Every Sha La La La") and the Students' "So Young."   "Young", a cut on an early Beach Boys, album serves as further evidence that a youthful Brian Wilson was clearly enamored by doo wop.  

There was one significant let down ... Ronnie got very little help from her band or backup singers. Quite frankly, I've seen wooden Indians with more musical punch and on-stage presence. Can you say "Going Through the Motions"?  In particular, the band's "bridges" failed to give you any feeling of the power and dynamic of Phil Spector's Wall of Sound.  

Ronnie Spector will be 72 this summer. She's at an age where most women are playing scrabble or doting on grand children. Not this kid.  Ronnie, the diminutive chick from New York's Spanish Harlem, who appears, shall we say, to have had several surgical procedures (no big deal ... I've had my neck, eyes and hair "boosted") still has a remarkably accentuated presence of relevancy. In other words, she's living proof that a septuagenarian can still be sexy.  

Spector began the set in a flashy, but stylish, blue-green top before donning a Santa Claus coat with fur trim for her first encore. She closed her brief 75 minute set in a black top that had me wondering just how much additional musical excellence Ronnie could have added to her scorecard had she not been essentially imprisoned by the iron grip of Phil Spector.  I loved seeing Ronnie growl on Ray Charles' legendary "What'd I Say" while also serving up an excellent musical tribute to Amy Winehouse.    

Once again, a round of applause for Ron Onesti for bringing in another evening of 24 karat gold memories. It was kick to see my old LOOP buddy and current WGN host Wendy Snyder as the house lights went up. Wendy admitted she was in tears throughout the show.  Ronnie has that kind of "affect." Her vocals are so singularly hers and hers alone, that you can't help but feel she's actually singing just to you.  

Ms. Spector, retirement is out of the question. You have too many shows left, too many audiences to please … but have your manager go to work on your supporting cast.    

Chet Coppock
Author:  Chet Coppock - Laying It On The Line
Rating 3.5 out of 4 Stars.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Another Forgotten Hits Concert Review

There is something truly magical and amazing about the sound of sibling voices singing together ... that combination creates a very special blend of musical magic that just strikes a nerve at the very core of the listener ... simply put, there really is nothing else quite like it.  

Never was this more in evidence than Friday Night at The Arcada Theatre when we saw The Cowsills and The Nelsons ... the meshing of their respective voices define the highest standard of keeping it "all in the family".  

We missed The Cowsills the last time they performed at The Arcada ... but the reviews we received from our readers were outstanding ... so we were REALLY looking forward to this performance.  They did not disappoint.

Revamping their show to feature more of a Christmas theme, they still managed to perform ALL of their biggest hits, intermingled with some great Christmas standards (as well as a few brand new Christmas originals of their own.)  Despite the fact that it has been nearly 46 years since their last big hit, I am here to tell you that they have not lost a thing musically during all that time.  I was blown away by just how youthful their voices still sound ... if anything, they seem to have gotten even better with age.  (What they HAVE lost is better than half their family ... it was not lost on the audience when Bob Cowsill commented "We used to be nine ... now we're down to four") ... but THREE of those four were up there on the stage Friday Night and they couldn't have sounded any better.  (One of Susan's song lyrics also mentioned that "you can't stop a hurricane", certainly a reference to the loss of her brother Barry, famously taken by Hurricane Katrina a few years ago ... you couldn't help but feel their pain.)  

This very special return performance featured Bob Cowsill, his brother Paul (clowning around in what certainly would have been a contender in "The Ugliest Christmas Sweater" Contest at nearly any bar in America) and sister Susan, who proved herself to be both quite the lead singer as well as quite the songwriter when several of her songs were featured Friday Night.  Brother John currently drums for The Beach Boys Band and occasionally still performs with the family when his schedule allows it ... but brothers Richard, Barry and Bill and Mom Barbara and Dad Bud have all since passed on. 

They have still managed to keep it a Family Affair, however, by enlisting the children of several of the original members as well as Susan's husband on drums ... and they seemed to be having SO much fun up there on stage that it was downright infectious ... you simply couldn't help but have a good time as they kidded and clowned around with one another.  The fact that the music itself sounded so damn good just made the whole experience that much more enjoyable. 

The show was very "loose" ... on at least a couple of occasions there were false starts on songs (or they just flat out stopped them all together and started over because they didn't like the way things were heading ... Who does that???  AND makes it all that much more fun in doing so???) 

They even paid homage to The Partridge Family by running a clip of Shirley Jones talking about the REAL inspiration for their hit television series ... followed by The Cowsills performing The Partridge Family's biggest #1 Hit, "I Think I Love You" to damn near perfection. 

Frannie and I both looked at each other with both pure joy and amazement when they sang "The Rain, The Park And Other Things" and sounded JUST like the record all these years later.  Other hits followed like "We Can Fly" and their theme from the hit television series "Love, American Style" (which, by the way, sounds JUST like "We Can Fly" in hindsight!!!  lol)  They joked about how Brother Bill didn't really like their Top Ten Hit "Indian Lake" ... until Brian Wilson told him how much he liked their new song ... and then suddenly Bill liked it, too.  (If you still haven't seen the Showtime Documentary on the band, do yourself a favor and buy it, rent it, or On Demand it ... these kids did NOT have an easy life after their initial success ... and it's laid out there for all to see in living color ... NOT a pretty picture ... yet still a very fun and interesting film to watch.)  They closed the show with their biggest hit, "Hair", to thunderous applause, Susan's "that's disgusting" ad-libs making it all that much more fun to watch.  Start to finish, this was a stand-out, top notch show. 

(Paul, Susan and Bob, signing memorabilia after the show ... 
 above photo by Frannie Kotal ... all others by Luciano Bilotti)

We saw headliners The Nelsons earlier this year when they brought their tribute show to their father, "Ricky Nelson Remembered" to The Arcada Theatre.  

(Me and The Nelsons, earlier this year, backstage at The Arcada)

Having been a HUGE fan of their father (I was fortunate enough to have seen him in concert several times ... always one of my favorites), I absolutely LOVED that show ... but this time around they, too, completely revamped their set to include a good, solid hour of holiday songs and reminisces from The Nelson Family Scrapbook, both in video and photo form.  (Clips of their famous dad singing "Jingle Bells" and "The Christmas Song" ["Chestnuts Roasting On An Open Fire"] were amongst the highlights.)

This time around they were accompanied by Kathie Baillie and her husband Michael Bonagura, both from the hit country group Baillie and the Boys.  Michael added some outstanding guitar riffs to go along with The Nelson Brothers' always perfect combination of guitars, bass and vocals ... again, something magical happens whenever these two boys sing together.

I couldn't believe they had put together an entirely new act just to fill the Christmas market.  (Truthfully for me, the Christmas music went on a bit too long ... like a few other members of the audience who made their feelings more vocally known, I couldn't wait for them to dig in and play a couple of their pop's tunes along with some of their own.  I think that had they spread the Christmas cheer out a little bit throughout their set rather than hitting us with a full hour of nothing but Christmas music right off the bat, it would have made for a more enjoyable and varied show.)  

The Nelsons are partially through completing a brand new Christmas album, which they promise to have ready for purchase when they return to The Arcada next December for another show.  (Hint-hint to Ron Onesti ... great marketing ploy, eh?)  They TRULY seem to enjoy the ambiance of this old, vintage theater ... and I felt it downright insulting that so few people showed up to see such an amazing night of music.  This was truly YOUR loss if you missed it ... a night of pure, musical magic from beginning to end.  (The Nelson Family, in some fashion, has been entertaining all of OUR families for over a hundred years now ... pretty amazing when you stop to think about it!)

Opening the evening's festivities were The Cadillac Casanovas, who added a couple of Christmas numbers to THEIR set as well.  (We LOVE these guys ... this has to be the third or fourth time we've seen them this year ... and they always show their audience a real good time.  Word is they're already booked for a return performance next April, backing up The New Colony Six for a fund-raising concert.  Forgotten Hits Reader, Author, Chicago Broadcasting Legend, and former New Colony Six Roadie Chet Coppock will MC that show ... be sure to check out Chet's review of the Ronnie Spector Christmas Concert tomorrow in Forgotten Hits!) 

The Nelsons told us that they would be performing at The Surf Ballroom the very next night ... this, of course, is the last place that Buddy Holly played that fateful night in 1959.  This has to ring ESPECIALLY close to home for Matthew and Gunnar Nelson, who also lost their father in a plane crash back on New Year's Eve, 1985.  Turns out The Cadillac Casanovas will be appearing at The Surf Ballroom on January 30th.  These guys should tear that place up ... they are SO much fun to watch. (Coincidently we also received emails last week announcing the appearances of Chris Montez, Brian Hyland and The Crystals on January 31st!) Frankie Avalon, Lou Christie, Bill Haley, Jr. and Tommy Allsup are also part of this very special all-star weekend line-up.  (See poster below ... a killer line-up to be sure!)
Still a few great holiday shows coming up at The Arcada ... in fact, we're expecting reader reviews from concerts held this past weekend of both the Felix Cavaliere Holiday Show at The Genesee Theatre as well as Ronnie Spector's "Best Christmas Ever" at The Arcada, which we'll run later in the week.   

The Arcada has a Holiday Ice Skating Spectacular on December 10th, Gary Hoey on December 11th (with special guest Lita Ford), Frank Sinatra's 99th Birthday Party Bash on December 12th, Jim Peterik and The Ides Of March on Saturday, December 13th, The Trans Infinity Orchestra on December 14th, LeAnn Rimes on December 18th, followed by a special three-night showing of "It's A Wonderful Life" December 19th, 20th and 21st, with a very special in-house appearance by Karolyn Grimes, ZuZu from the movie.   

The Genesee Theatre presents "The Nutcracker" on December 12th and 13th, followed by the Michael McDonald Christmas and Hits Concert on December 14th.  Get out and spread the holiday cheer by attending some of these shows!  

Monday, December 8, 2014

An Interview With Barry Winslow of The Royal Guardsmen

Our FH Buddy Carl Wiser had the opportunity to interview Barry Winslow, founding member of The Royal Guardsmen, last week ... and he invited us to share it with all of our Forgotten Hits Readers.  (How could we say no?!?!  Especially this time of year with "Snoopy's Christmas" all over the radio again!!!)

The Royal Guardsmen returned to the Snoopy well three more times after their initial #1 Chart Hit "Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron", which topped the charts right at the end of 1966 (before The Monkees knocked them out of first place with their monster hit "I'm A Believer", which topped the charts for the next seven weeks.)  Follow-up Snoopy Hits included "The Return Of The Red Baron" (#14, 1967), "Snoopy's Christmas" (#10, 1967) and "Snoopy For President" (#85, 1968) ... and, for the record, no, he didn't win ... but he actually DID receive some write-in votes ... just like Pat Paulsen who, you may recall, made the pre-election statement:  "If nominated, I will not run ... if elected, I will not serve"!!!  (lol)

The Royal Guardsmen also hit The National Top 50 with a couple of NON-Snoopy Songs (which are amongst my favorites by the band) ... "The Airplane Song" (#46, 1967) and "Baby Let's Wait" (a cover of The Rascals' LP track) went to #33 in 1968.  ("Baby Let's Wait" was actually The Royal Guardsmen's first release on Laurie Records ... when it failed to chart, the band went the novelty route and we've been hearing the tale of Snoopy and The Red Baron ever since ... believe it or not, it's coming up on its 50th Anniversary!!!)

We let Forgotten Hits Readers know a couple of years ago that three of the original founding members of The Royal Guardsmen had gotten back together again ... you can check them out at their official website:

Meanwhile, Carl had the chance to talk with Barry in conjunction with his Songfacts website ... .  

They went into far greater depth on two of The Royal Guardsmen's best known hits, "Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron" and "Snoopy's Christmas" ... but here exclusively for our Forgotten Hits Readers is a bit more of their conversation:  

CARL WISER:  There were six guys in the band, but only five are listed in the Joel Whitburn Billboard books. Who is missing from this list?    

BARRY WINSLOW:  Well, there's me, Barry Winslow (vocals, guitar), Chris Nunley (vocals), Tom Richards (guitar), Bill Balough (bass) and Billy Taylor (organ) and John Burdett, drummer.     

CW:  How did the German part at the beginning of "Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron" come about, and does it mean anything?   

BW:  It is real. Chris was studying German in college. Something like "we will now sing together the song of a pig headed dog, and our beloved Red Baron."    

CW:  That song was written by Dick Holler and Phil Gernhard. Who were these guys, and what was it like working with them?   

BW:  Phil was our producer, Dick a staff writer ... good guys.      

CW:  How did you guys feel about recording so many Snoopy songs?   

BW:  We were a bit let down since we never really got to do our own songs. In those days, most bands were stuck in the "hit rut."    

CW:  The Monkees kept you out of the #1 spot. Did you despise these musical primates?   

BW:  LOL ... the guys were ok, just actors. Billboard was the only #2 song. Record World, one other major chart at the time, had us #1.     

CW:  Who sang lead on the Snoopy songs?  

BW:  T'was me. Really wanted to split the chores with Chris, but the label said no.    

CW:  "Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron" was a hit around Christmas, 1966. Did this play into the decision to release "Snoopy's Christmas" for the next Christmas season?     

BW:  Not sure Carl. The popularity of Snoop was incredible (as still to this day). When "Snoop's Christmas" came along, we just did it. The first and the Christmas are my favorites.      

CW:  The Red Baron is shot down the first time you sing about him, but we never see him crash, conveniently leaving room for sequels. Was this done intentionally?   

BW:  I think so, as well as just keeping Snoop and The Baron rivals.     

CW:  You co-wrote "I Say Love," which hit #72 in 1968. At a time when outside writers composed most of the songs for young acts, this was unusual. How did you get the record company to recognize you for your songwriting talents?   

BW:  Billy Taylor co-wrote with me. I think it was the need for material and they let us slide one in.    

CW:  What did you do post-Guardsmen, and what is it like hearing your songs on the radio so many years later?    

BW:  Well a lot of life has happened, but I still missed music. Sooo ... I've written my first Contemporary Christian CD: "Transition" ( it's at CD Baby ) and I truly enjoy it. Yeah, it's still brings back fond memories. I look back on it Carl, and have a hard time remembering I was that young, or had that much hair!  LOL.  

Hope this sheds a bit of light on us. I appreciate the interest my friend.  

You can find Songfact's two Royal Guardsmen entries here ... Barry sheds a lot more info on the songs he talks about with Carl here:

FOR THE RECORD:  I let Joel Whitburn know about the omission of Drummer John Burdett from The Royal Guardsman line-up shown in his Top Pop Singles Book ... and Joel assured me that John's name will be added to all future publication updates.  He also pointed out the fact that, thanks to the new expansion editions of both his Cash Box and Record World chart books, The Royal Guardsmen (and Barry Winslow as a solo artist) can now claim three more charted singles to their credit ... read on!

Hi Kent,  
Thanks for the info on the drummer – don’t know how we left Burdett out, but he’ll be in, in the next edition of Top Pop Singles.  By the way, Barry will be interested to know that “Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron” re-entered the Record World Charts in 1973, giving their group a total of 10 national chart hits!  Seeing that I’m shading in the entire data column of the overall top hit for artists with 10 or more hits, their biggest hit “Snoopy” (which hit #1 on Record World in 1967) will pop right out in my new “Comparison Book”, due out in late January.  Thanks for the drummer info, Kent!  
P.S.:  Barry Winslow had two “Bubbling” hits: “The Smallest Astronaut (A Race To The Moon With The Red Baron) ... Cash Box #113 in 1969 and “Get To Know Me” ... Record World #126 in 1973.